Análise da Teoria da Democracia Racial sob a perspectiva da literatura de Machado de Assis

Autores

  • Kátia Aparecida Rodrigues UFFS - UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DA FRONTEIRA SUL

Palavras-chave:

Teorias raciais e eugênicas, Escravidão, Democracia racial, Literatura.

Resumo

Este artigo busca relacionar a teoria da democracia racial criada a partir da análise da obra de Gilberto Freyre, Casa Grande & Senzala, com o contexto brasileiro no período escravocrata. Para a realização da análise, além de dados históricos sobre o período, foram utilizadas obras da literatura de Machado de Assis, um dos maiores autores do realismo brasileiro, que escreveu sobre a escravidão em diversas de suas obras. As literaturas utilizadas são: o livro Memórias Póstumas de Brás Cubas, publicado em 1881; o conto Pai Contra Mãe, de 1906; e a crônica Bons dias, publicada em 19 de maio de 1888. Estas três obras relatam situações que demonstram a relação entre senhor e indivíduos escravizados no Brasil escravocrata, que fazem questionar o mito da democracia racial, que ainda hoje permeia muitas das discussões sobre a escravidão no Brasil e suas consequências para a atualidade.
Palavras-chave: Teorias raciais e eugênicas; Escravidão; Democracia racial; Literatura.

Abstract

This article seeks to relate the theory of racial democracy created from the analysis of the work of Gilberto Freyre, Casa Grande & Senzala, with the Brazilian context in the enslaved period. Machado de Assis, one of the greatest authors of Brazilian realism, wrote about slavery in several of his works, in addition to historical data on the period. The literatures used are: the book Memórias Póstumas de Brás Cubas, published in 1881; the Pai contra Mãetale of 1906; and the Bons diaschronicle published on May 19, 1888. These three works relate situations that demonstrate the relationship between lord and individuals enslaved in slave-owning Brazil, which call into question the myth of 

racial democracy that still pervades many of the discussions about slavery in the Brazil and its consequences for the present.

Keywords:Racial and eugenic theories; Slavery; Racial democracy; Literature.

Biografia do Autor

Kátia Aparecida Rodrigues, UFFS - UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DA FRONTEIRA SUL

Graduada em Ciências Sociais da Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul. 

Mestranda no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação da Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul - Chapecó

Referências

ALMEIDA, Kátia Lorena Novais. Da prática costumeira à alforria legal. 2009. Disponível em: http://periodicos.uesb.br/index.php/politeia/article/viewFile/227/245. Acesso em: 02 abr. 2018.

ARIZA, Marília Bueno de Araújo. Trabalho e alforria: libertandos locadores de serviços em São Paulo e Campinas (1830-1888). 2013. Disponível em: http://www.snh2013.anpuh.org/resources/anais/27/1364702054_ARQUIVO_anpuh2013-trabalhoealforia.pdf. Acesso em 02 abr. 2018.

ASSIS, Machado de. Pai contra mãe. In: ASSIS, Machado de. Contos. Porto Alegre: L&PM, 1998. p. 90-105.

ASSIS, Machado de. Memórias Póstumas de Brás Cubas. 2. ed. São Paulo: Martin Claret,

ASSIS, Machado de. Bons dias. In: ASSIS, Machado de. Obra Completa, Vol III. 3ª ed. Rio de Janeiro: José Aguilar, 1973. p. 489-491.

CARDOSO, Fernando Henrique. Prefácio. In: FREYRE, Gilberto. Casa Grande & Senzala: formação da família brasileira sobre o regime da economia patriarcal. 47ª ed. São Paulo: Global, 20013.

CARVALHO, Rafaela Rodrigues da Silva; COSENTINO, Daniel do Val. Escravidão em Machado De Assis: uma análise da obra “Memórias póstumas de Brás Cubas”. 2015. Disponível em: <http://cihe.fflch.usp.br/sites/cihe.fflch.usp.br/files/Rafaela_Carvalho.pdf>. Acesso em: 10 nov. 2015.

FAUSTO, Boris. História do Brasil: História do Brasil cobre um período de mais de quinhentos anos, desde as raízes da colonização portuguesa até nossos dias. 1996. Disponível em: http://www.argumento.com.br/cpd/downloads/material_didatico/C3ME/História%20do%20Brasil%20(Boris%20Fausto).pdf. Acesso em: 02 de abr. 2018.

FILHO, Manuela Alves. Tese analisa a conexão entre literatos negros abolicionistas. 2015. Disponível em: <http://www.geledes.org.br/tese-analisa-a-conexao-entre-literatos-negros-abolicionistas/#gs.BQmunMg>. Acesso em: 13 dez. 2015.

FREYRE, Gilberto. Casa-Grande & Senzala: formação da família brasileira sobre o regime da economia patriarcal. 47. ed. São Paulo: Global, 20013.

NOGUEIRA JUNIOR, Arnaldo. Machado de Assis. 2015. Disponível em: <http://www.releituras.com/machadodeassis_bio.asp>. Acesso em: 10 nov. 2015.

PIMENTA, Denisia Gomes; ALENCASTRO, Luiz Felipe de. Pai contra Mãe (Conto), de Machado de Assis. 2015. Disponível em: <http://www.passeiweb.com/estudos/livros/pai_contra_mae_conto>. Acesso em: 22 nov. 2015.

REZENDE, Rodrigo Castro. Paternalismo e liberdade no norte de Minas Gerais oitocentistas. In: ABREU, Martha; PEREIRA, Matheus Serva (Orgs). Caminhos da liberdade: histórias da abolição e do pós-abolição no Brasil. Niterói: PPGHistória-UFF, 2011. p. 143-163.

SILVA, Afrânio et al. Sociologia em movimento. São Paulo: Moderna, 2013.

SOUSA, Rainer Gonçalves. Escravidão no Brasil. Disponível em <http://www.brasilescola.com/historiab/escravidao-no-brasil.htm>. Acesso em 22 de novembro de 2015.

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Publicado

2018-07-25

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            PKPTemplateManager.display(frontend/pages/article.tpl) % line  287, file: ArticleHandler.inc.php
         ArticleHandler.view(Array[1], Object:Request) % line  391, file: PKPRouter.inc.php
      PKPRouter._authorizeInitializeAndCallRequest(Array[2], Object:Request, Array[1], false) % line  231, file: PKPPageRouter.inc.php
   PKPPageRouter.route(Object:Request) % line  143, file: Dispatcher.inc.php
Dispatcher.dispatch(Object:Request) % line  281, file: PKPApplication.inc.php
PKPApplication.execute() % line   68, file: index.php
                                                                  ADOConnection.CacheExecute(3600, SELECT 				o.submission_id, 				MAX(s.context_id) AS journal_id, 				MAX(i.date_published) AS i_pub, 				MAX(p.date_published) A..., Array[2]) % line  132, file: DAO.inc.php
                                                               DAO.retrieveCached(SELECT 				o.submission_id, 				MAX(s.context_id) AS journal_id, 				MAX(i.date_published) AS i_pub, 				MAX(p.date_published) A..., Array[2], 3600) % line   91, file: ArticleSearchDAO.inc.php
                                                            ArticleSearchDAO.getPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null, , 500, 1) % line  201, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                         SubmissionSearch._getMergedPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[1], , null, null, 500, 1) % line  146, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                      SubmissionSearch._getMergedKeywordResults(Object:Journal, Array[4], , null, null, 500, 1) % line  194, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                   SubmissionSearch._getMergedPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[4], null, null, null, 500, 1) % line  146, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                SubmissionSearch._getMergedKeywordResults(Object:Journal, Array[3], null, null, null, 500, 1) % line  132, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                             SubmissionSearch._getMergedArray(Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null) % line  263, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                          SubmissionSearch.retrieveResults(Object:Request, Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null, null, Object:DBResultRange, Array[1]) % line   92, file: RecommendBySimilarityPlugin.inc.php
                                       RecommendBySimilarityPlugin.callbackTemplateArticlePageFooter(Templates::Article::Footer::PageFooter, Array[3]) % line  107, file: HookRegistry.inc.php
                                    HookRegistry.call(Templates::Article::Footer::PageFooter, Array[3]) % line 1256, file: PKPTemplateManager.inc.php
                                 PKPTemplateManager.smartyCallHook(Array[1], Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line   43, file: 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101^1c372c95cd85572e0fbc9a53d0323a0b229cfc78_0.app.frontendpagesarticle.tpl.php
                              content_5ff2023dddfdf5_96924003(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  123, file: smarty_template_resource_base.php
                           Smarty_Template_Resource_Base.getRenderedTemplateCode(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  114, file: smarty_template_compiled.php
                        Smarty_Template_Compiled.render(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  216, file: smarty_internal_template.php
                     Smarty_Internal_Template.render(false, 1) % line  232, file: smarty_internal_templatebase.php
                  Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase._execute(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template, null, 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101, null, 1) % line  134, file: smarty_internal_templatebase.php
               Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase.display(frontend/pages/article.tpl, null, 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101, null) % line  924, file: PKPTemplateManager.inc.php
            PKPTemplateManager.display(frontend/pages/article.tpl) % line  287, file: ArticleHandler.inc.php
         ArticleHandler.view(Array[1], Object:Request) % line  391, file: PKPRouter.inc.php
      PKPRouter._authorizeInitializeAndCallRequest(Array[2], Object:Request, Array[1], false) % line  231, file: PKPPageRouter.inc.php
   PKPPageRouter.route(Object:Request) % line  143, file: Dispatcher.inc.php
Dispatcher.dispatch(Object:Request) % line  281, file: PKPApplication.inc.php
PKPApplication.execute() % line   68, file: index.php
                                                                  ADOConnection.CacheExecute(3600, SELECT 				o.submission_id, 				MAX(s.context_id) AS journal_id, 				MAX(i.date_published) AS i_pub, 				MAX(p.date_published) A..., Array[2]) % line  132, file: DAO.inc.php
                                                               DAO.retrieveCached(SELECT 				o.submission_id, 				MAX(s.context_id) AS journal_id, 				MAX(i.date_published) AS i_pub, 				MAX(p.date_published) A..., Array[2], 3600) % line   91, file: ArticleSearchDAO.inc.php
                                                            ArticleSearchDAO.getPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null, , 500, 1) % line  201, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                         SubmissionSearch._getMergedPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[1], , null, null, 500, 1) % line  146, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                      SubmissionSearch._getMergedKeywordResults(Object:Journal, Array[4], , null, null, 500, 1) % line  194, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                   SubmissionSearch._getMergedPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[4], null, null, null, 500, 1) % line  146, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                SubmissionSearch._getMergedKeywordResults(Object:Journal, Array[3], null, null, null, 500, 1) % line  132, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                             SubmissionSearch._getMergedArray(Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null) % line  263, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                          SubmissionSearch.retrieveResults(Object:Request, Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null, null, Object:DBResultRange, Array[1]) % line   92, file: RecommendBySimilarityPlugin.inc.php
                                       RecommendBySimilarityPlugin.callbackTemplateArticlePageFooter(Templates::Article::Footer::PageFooter, Array[3]) % line  107, file: HookRegistry.inc.php
                                    HookRegistry.call(Templates::Article::Footer::PageFooter, Array[3]) % line 1256, file: PKPTemplateManager.inc.php
                                 PKPTemplateManager.smartyCallHook(Array[1], Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line   43, file: 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101^1c372c95cd85572e0fbc9a53d0323a0b229cfc78_0.app.frontendpagesarticle.tpl.php
                              content_5ff2023dddfdf5_96924003(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  123, file: smarty_template_resource_base.php
                           Smarty_Template_Resource_Base.getRenderedTemplateCode(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  114, file: smarty_template_compiled.php
                        Smarty_Template_Compiled.render(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  216, file: smarty_internal_template.php
                     Smarty_Internal_Template.render(false, 1) % line  232, file: smarty_internal_templatebase.php
                  Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase._execute(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template, null, 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101, null, 1) % line  134, file: smarty_internal_templatebase.php
               Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase.display(frontend/pages/article.tpl, null, 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101, null) % line  924, file: PKPTemplateManager.inc.php
            PKPTemplateManager.display(frontend/pages/article.tpl) % line  287, file: ArticleHandler.inc.php
         ArticleHandler.view(Array[1], Object:Request) % line  391, file: PKPRouter.inc.php
      PKPRouter._authorizeInitializeAndCallRequest(Array[2], Object:Request, Array[1], false) % line  231, file: PKPPageRouter.inc.php
   PKPPageRouter.route(Object:Request) % line  143, file: Dispatcher.inc.php
Dispatcher.dispatch(Object:Request) % line  281, file: PKPApplication.inc.php
PKPApplication.execute() % line   68, file: index.php
                                                                  ADOConnection.CacheExecute(3600, SELECT 				o.submission_id, 				MAX(s.context_id) AS journal_id, 				MAX(i.date_published) AS i_pub, 				MAX(p.date_published) A..., Array[2]) % line  132, file: DAO.inc.php
                                                               DAO.retrieveCached(SELECT 				o.submission_id, 				MAX(s.context_id) AS journal_id, 				MAX(i.date_published) AS i_pub, 				MAX(p.date_published) A..., Array[2], 3600) % line   91, file: ArticleSearchDAO.inc.php
                                                            ArticleSearchDAO.getPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null, , 500, 1) % line  201, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                         SubmissionSearch._getMergedPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[1], , null, null, 500, 1) % line  146, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                      SubmissionSearch._getMergedKeywordResults(Object:Journal, Array[4], , null, null, 500, 1) % line  194, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                   SubmissionSearch._getMergedPhraseResults(Object:Journal, Array[4], null, null, null, 500, 1) % line  146, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                                SubmissionSearch._getMergedKeywordResults(Object:Journal, Array[3], null, null, null, 500, 1) % line  132, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                             SubmissionSearch._getMergedArray(Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null) % line  263, file: SubmissionSearch.inc.php
                                          SubmissionSearch.retrieveResults(Object:Request, Object:Journal, Array[1], null, null, null, Object:DBResultRange, Array[1]) % line   92, file: RecommendBySimilarityPlugin.inc.php
                                       RecommendBySimilarityPlugin.callbackTemplateArticlePageFooter(Templates::Article::Footer::PageFooter, Array[3]) % line  107, file: HookRegistry.inc.php
                                    HookRegistry.call(Templates::Article::Footer::PageFooter, Array[3]) % line 1256, file: PKPTemplateManager.inc.php
                                 PKPTemplateManager.smartyCallHook(Array[1], Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line   43, file: 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101^1c372c95cd85572e0fbc9a53d0323a0b229cfc78_0.app.frontendpagesarticle.tpl.php
                              content_5ff2023dddfdf5_96924003(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  123, file: smarty_template_resource_base.php
                           Smarty_Template_Resource_Base.getRenderedTemplateCode(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  114, file: smarty_template_compiled.php
                        Smarty_Template_Compiled.render(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template) % line  216, file: smarty_internal_template.php
                     Smarty_Internal_Template.render(false, 1) % line  232, file: smarty_internal_templatebase.php
                  Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase._execute(Object:Smarty_Internal_Template, null, 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101, null, 1) % line  134, file: smarty_internal_templatebase.php
               Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase.display(frontend/pages/article.tpl, null, 42362804174f266c598cdb32c3208fc745b92101, null) % line  924, file: PKPTemplateManager.inc.php
            PKPTemplateManager.display(frontend/pages/article.tpl) % line  287, file: ArticleHandler.inc.php
         ArticleHandler.view(Array[1], Object:Request) % line  391, file: PKPRouter.inc.php
      PKPRouter._authorizeInitializeAndCallRequest(Array[2], Object:Request, Array[1], false) % line  231, file: PKPPageRouter.inc.php
   PKPPageRouter.route(Object:Request) % line  143, file: Dispatcher.inc.php
Dispatcher.dispatch(Object:Request) % line  281, file: PKPApplication.inc.php
PKPApplication.execute() % line   68, file: index.php